Electric Car Dynamo: The Components and How it Works
How electric cars work is different from conventional cars. Likewise, an electric car dynamo is used to move its components. This tool has the role of converting electrical energy into mechanical energy so that electric cars can run optimally.
What is an Electric Car Dynamo?
The electric car dynamo is a component in an electric car whose job is to convert electrical energy into motion energy. That way, the electrical energy available in the car will turn into mechanical energy. This is where the power is created to move the car.
The car dynamo works on the principle of electromagnetic induction. According to this principle, current can be generated by rotating a coil or wire in a magnetic field or vice versa. The loop spinning creates a potential difference in the coil and keeps the current flowing.
Types of Electric Car Dynamo
Generally, it is divided into two types: the third-brush dynamo and the two-brush dynamo. What is the difference?
- The third-brush dynamo has three brushes connected to different vehicle parts. The first brush is connected to the vehicle body, the second to the battery terminals, and the third to the field winding (coil).
- The two-brush dynamo is the best electric car dynamo, which consists of two brushes, one connected to the battery and the other to the field winding (coil).
Of the two types, one of the dynamo brands for electric cars widely used worldwide is the Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) type, which is considered very sophisticated compared to other types. PMSM is proven to have more efficient work and can produce ample torque consistently. In addition, PMSM is also less likely to experience power loss than induction-type dynamos. The reason is that the PMSM rotor is more excellent than the induction type.
Even though it is very popular because of its advantages compared to other electric car dynamos, the use and production of PMSM are not that wide. The reason is that the price of this electric car driving dynamo requires quite a significant production cost. If you want to feel the use of PMSM, you can feel it on the Wuling Air ev electric car, which has been confirmed to use the PMSM dynamo.
This car uses a Lithium Ferro-Phosphate IP67 battery that works together with the PMSM dynamo. The power generated is 30kW (40.2 dk) with a peak torque of 110 Nm. For 6,600 watt power, it takes 4 hours to charge the Air ev battery fully. But if you use 2,200 watts of power, it will take up to 11 hours to charge. As a mainstay "war car," the Air ev is very comfortable on the highway because it can move nimbly and makes it easy to park in confined spaces.
This is the importance of PMSM, which can still be used to drive with Air ev. For example, when traveling long distances or to areas that are difficult to charge. Air ev owners don't need to worry because there are still dynamos that can run on fuel like most other cars.
Electric Car Dynamo Components
The dynamo is one of the most crucial electric car components to replace the battery when needed. Well, the electric car dynamo itself has several components, including:
- Battery. Serves to store electricity that will be used as a driving force for the car and distributes electric current to the inverter. Electric car batteries are made of sturdy material, so they are not easily damaged even though they have been charged repeatedly.
- Controllers. Its function controls the electric power from the battery to the inverter. The new battery will send DC to the inverter after receiving a signal from the controller.
- Inverters. Receives DC electric current sent from the battery. The inverter is then in charge of converting the electric current into AC to drive the motor. Conversely, the inverter will also change from AC to DC when braking.
- Traction Motor. Drives the transmission and wheels of the car. Usually, there is more than one traction motor in an electric car.
- Auxiliary battery. This component is helpful as a storage area and a provider of electric current to turn on car accessories, such as air conditioners, alarms, car lights, and others.
- Thermal system. This is an electric car component that acts as a car engine coolant.
- DC converters. Because DC electricity in electric cars has a high voltage, a DC converter is needed to convert the electric current to a low voltage. The goal is that electric car components that only need low-voltage electricity can be energized.
How the Electric Car Dynamo Works
When using a battery, an electric car works by passing an electric current from a charged battery to other car components. This electric current drives the car, for example, moving the wheels and steering wheel. Here is a more detailed way of working:
- The gas pedal is pressed, and the signal is sent to the controller.
- The controller orders the battery to supply DC electric current to the inverter.
- DC electric current is converted to AC.
- AC is supplied to the traction motor with pressure according to the driver's pressure on the gas pedal.
- The electric current is converted to kinetic energy, which rotates to drive the wheels.
- The rotor will vibrate to drive the transmission system, and the car can move on.
Meanwhile, how the electric car dynamo works are:
- When the battery is not charged or about to run out, the machine will replace its function and start to heat up.
- The dynamo supplies power to the generator engine and converts energy from engine fuel into electrical energy to run and can simultaneously charge the battery.
- When the speed is low, the battery takes the electric power. Meanwhile, for additional power, when the car accelerates, the power is taken from the dynamo. There are also those who don't use the dynamo at all when driving at low speed.
- At a speed of 60-80 km/hour, the dynamo will completely take over the car. This is also the case when you have to overtake another vehicle. Basically, when you need high acceleration, the dynamo will take over.
- In hybrid cars, usually, when the car stops temporarily, the dynamo will stop. For example, energy will be taken from the battery when stopped at a red light. Starting from driving AC and other electronic components.
That's how the electric car dynamo and some of its components work. The dynamo is what makes electric cars run even though they don't use fossil fuels.