Car Axle: Functions, Components, and How It Works

20 September, 2022

Image Car Axle: Functions, Components, and How It Works

For those of you who are familiar with car machines, you must be familiar with car axle components. This is one of the components in the car propulsion system. In the automotive world, this component is also known as a differential.

To make a car work and run, it takes very complex components. One of them that is quite important is this axle or differential. Do you know what a car axle is, what is its function and how does it work? If you want to know, make sure to read this article to the end.

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Understanding Car Axle

The car axle is one of the important components useful for transmitting rotary power from the engine to the drive shaft. This component is also called a differential because it means "different". This is because this component does function as a differentiator for the rotational movement of the left and right tire shafts when turning.

Car axle components are usually found in cars with RWD or 4WD drive types. With this component, the right and left car tires will have the same speed so that the car's speed can be stable.

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Car Axle Functions

The car axle has a vital function, especially to transmit the rotary power from the car engine to the drive wheels. Therefore, this component must be treated properly, one of which is by providing car axle oil, so that its function is always optimal.

Here are some car axle functions that you need to know:

1. Left and right wheel axle rotation difference

The meaning of this function is to distinguish the rotational motion of the axis so that the turning radius of the car becomes shorter and the car does not need to turn further when it needs to turn as a whole.

2. Rotary power successor

The car axle also functions as a successor to the engine's rotary power to the drive shaft. This component will transmit the rotary power from the engine to the car tires so that the car speed can be controlled to go forward, backwards, or take a turn.

3. Change the direction of rotation

The car axle can function to change the direction of rotation by 90 degrees. Rotational power which was initially straight will be changed 90 degrees so that it can rotate the drive shaft.

4. Increase rotary power

Another function is to increase the torque or torque. The power that comes from the engine will be channeled to the axle of the drive wheels so that the resulting rotary power becomes greater.

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Car Axle Components

To perform its function properly, the car axle has several interconnected components, including:

  • Drive pinion gear
  • Drive pinion shaft
  • Ring gear
  • Spider gear
  • Spider gear shaft
  • Differential carrier
  • Axle shaft bearing
  • Side gear
  • Adjuster nut
  • bearing cap
  • Axle shaft housing
  • Axle shaft oil tube
  • Universal joint flange
  • Gasket

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How Car Axle Works

The way the axle works is distinguished by the position of the car when walking or turning.

1. The position of the car turns

When the car turns, the wheels on the inside will receive a rotating resistance of the front wheels that change direction. This position will make the left wheel side gear heavier so that the pinion gear will rotate due to the weight difference. The right side gear will move faster and make the rotation of the two wheels different so that the direction of rotation of the two is opposite.

2. The car goes straight

When the car goes straight, the torque generated by the axle will enter the pinion drive gear. Furthermore, the rotary power will be connected to the ring gear which has more teeth. When the position is straight, the car axle will make the ring gear rpm lower than the pinion gear rpm so that the ring gear rotation will be forwarded to the differential case.

The flow of power from this differential case will move to the pinion shaft and then forwarded back to the pinion gear and side gear. Furthermore, the pinion gear will rotate on the pinion shaft so that the right and left wheels change sides of rotation. However, because the steering wheel is straight, the load on the right and left wheels remains the same.

3. When the car wheels get into the mud

When the car's wheels get into the mud, the rotational speed of the wheels will be slower. So in order for this component to remain optimal, make sure the condition of the lubricant is always good so that it can regulate the movement of the rotating shaft. The trick is to always check the condition of the axle oil.

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Characteristics of Problematic Car Axle

This component works very important in the car's drive system so that its condition must be ensured to always be optimal. Here are some characteristics of a problematic car axle that you need to recognize:

1. There is a leak at the axle

One of the most easily recognizable characteristics if this component is problematic is the presence of a leak in this component. This condition is usually characterized by the presence of car oil fluid on the axle component. To avoid this risk, you must know the characteristics of the car axle oil that must be replaced so that the vehicle's performance remains optimal.

2. There is a buzzing sound

A buzzing sound when the car is started can also be a sign of a problematic car axle. To find out, you can drive in a quiet place then open the window and listen to whether you hear a hum from the car engine or not. If it buzzes, it's possible that the axle function of the car is in trouble.

3. There is a vibration on the axle

Another characteristic of a problematic car axle is the presence of vibrations centered on these component parts. The appearance of this vibration can be caused by many factors. One of the most common is the presence of damage to the cross joint or its connection.

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What is the Price Range of the Car Axle?

Car axle prices vary greatly depending on the type. In general, the price is around Rp. 4,995,000. While the price of car axle oil is priced from Rp 40,000 - Rp 300,000 depending on the type and thickness.

To make sure your axle is functioning properly, always check the condition of the axle oil. Change the axle oil immediately if the condition is dirty enough. This is important to ensure that the vehicle is always in optimal condition when used.

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